Archive for January 2008

Branches of Science

  1. Means systematic knowledge. Has 2fields, natural & social sciences.
  2. Applied science- Knowledge applied from natural scientific fields to solve practical problems. ex: fields of engineering like ceramic engineering, computing technology, electronics, nanotechnology, nuclear technology, zoography etc.
  3. Mathematics- has 4fields., arithmetic, algebra, geometry, analysis.
  4. Arts- Includes architecture(designing bldgs), visual arts like painting, crafts etc, dance, design, drawing, fashion, film, literature(books & writings), music, photography, poetry, sculpture, ikebana etc.
  5. Philosophy- study of fundamental nature of knowledge, reality & existence.

Natural science- study of nature

  1. Astronomy: study of celestial obj’s, space & universe.
  2. Biology: study of living organisms.
  3. Chemistry: study of composition of matter.
  4. Earth science: Term for all sciences related to earth like geology(study of physical matter of earth), geophysics(Earth’s physics), hydrology, meterology, geography(Earth’s physical features), oceanography, soil science.
  5. Physics: study of nature & properties of matter & energy.
  6. Environmental science: study of envt.

Social science- study of human behr & society.

  1. Anthropology: Study of human kind, esp societies, cultures, human origins. Study of human history through fossils, excavation of sites is archeology. Study of human culture is humanities.
  2. Economics: Study of mgt of wealth. Home economics is study of cookery & household mgt.
  3. History: Study of past events.
  4. Law: Rules recognized by a country.
  5. Linguistics: study of language.
  6. Political science: Study of politics.
  7. Psychology: Study of mind.
  8. Sociology: Study of human society.

Add a comment January 23, 2008

Types of government

  1. Aristocracy: form of govt where people of noble birth with hereditary titles rule.
  2. Autocracy: by one self appointed person with absolute power. Dictatorship is one kind of autocracy.
  3. Communist: under ctrl of a communist party. This system is derived from Marxism, practised in China & formerly in the Soviet Union. May have sev legal political parties but communist party has dominant role in govt.
  4. Democracy: people have a voice in the exercise of power, typically through elected representatives.
  5. Feudalism: dominant system in medieval europe.
  6. Monarchy: by monarch usually single person.
  7. Republic: Supreme power by people & their elected representatives. Has elected President.

Add a comment January 23, 2008

England history

  1. 55BC Caesar landed
  2. Till 5th century AD- Romans ruled, who called it island Britannia.
  3. 871- Alfred the Great began to rule & oxford university was founded.
  4. 1066- Battle of hastings, HenryII ruled
  5. 1154- Richard Lion-heart was succeeded
  6. 1295- 1st perfect parliament was held.
  7. Henry VIII- has 6wives.
  8. 1558-1603 Elizabeth’s reign was the most brilliant in English history. Shakespeare wrote dramas & poems, spanish armada was destroyed, mary stuart was beheaded.

Add a comment January 15, 2008

Ireland history

  1. 4th century of christian era- people of Ireland r called scoti/scots.
  2. 5th century- St.Patrick who came converted whole island to christianity.
  3. 9-10th centuries- Northmen settlements were made on E coast of Ireland.
  4. 1014- Danish invasions ended.
  5. 1172- Henry II of England began to conquest & ruled.
  6. 1801- Ireland was united with G.Britain.
  7. 1846-47 Potato femine was followed by a great Irish emigration to America.

Add a comment January 15, 2008

Scotland history

  1. Growth of scottish nation is 1 of the most wonderful facts in history.
  2. Romans never quite conquered Scotland as they did England.
  3. 836- Kenneth became king of the scots. Saxons from S, Norwegians & Danes from N & E combined to form a new nation.
  4. When William the conqueror invaded England, he marched into scotch country & conquered Malcolm III, who had killed Macbeth, the early king about whom Shakespeare wrote the great tragedy.
  5. Scotland submitted to England during reign of Henry II, but Richard Lion-heart wanted money for a crusade to the Holy Land, so sold scotland’s independence back to her for 10,000marks.
  6. 1296- Edward I invaded scotland
  7. 1297- Scots were victorious under Wallace, but defeated the next yr.
  8. 1305- Wallace died & his son was crowned.
  9. 1371- Robert II was the 1st of the Stuart kings. Mary stuart, queen of scots claimed the right to be queen of England & was beheaded for this by her cousin Elizabeth, the reigning queen.
  10. She left the english throne to Mary’s son, James VI who became James I of england. From this time scotland has been part of Great britain.

Add a comment January 15, 2008

Scandinavia history

  1. Land of Norsemen from Norway, who were the terror of all Europe. 
  2. Include Norwegians, Swedes, Danes & icelanders-all longhaired blonds.
  3. 1397-1523AD Denmark, Sweden & Norway all united under Queen Margaret.

Add a comment January 15, 2008

Russia history

  1. This empire covers 1/6th the land surface of earth of which less than 1/4 is in Europe.
  2. 1222- Mongols under Jenghis Khan conquered eastern Russia. This held back Russian progress so that it fell 200yrs behind the rest of the Europe in civilization.
  3. 1425-62 Russian provinces were again united & threw the invaders. Many ruled later.
  4. 62-1505 Ivan the Great married niece of Emperor Constantine & put together Russian Code of Laws.
  5. 1533-84 Ivan the Terrible took the name of “Czar”.
  6. 1689-1725 Peter the Great ruled. He disguised himself & learned ship-building in Holland. He forced his people to follow western costumes & customs & began to build St.Petersburg.
  7. 1762-96 Under brilliant but wicked Catherine the Great Russia became better civilized & Poland was conquered.
  8. 1801-25 Alexander I dealt with Napolean who invaded Russia.
  9. Many wars took place later. Alexander III married sister of Queen Elexandra of England.
  10. War with Japan was a series of defeats.
  11. Jan 22, 1905- On “Red Sunday” revolution broke out, after which a constitution, a kind of congress were granted to people.

Add a comment January 15, 2008

Netherlands history

  1. Holland represents a portion of N.lands or Low countries under empire of Charlemagne.
  2. During later part of Middle Ages, cities of N.lands rose to a very high state of prosperity & some of them became independent republics. Charles V of Spain formally added N.lands to the Spanish crown.
  3. 1555- He resigned & his son Philip II got the crown who outdid his father in bigotry & cruelty.
  4. 1567- Duke of Alva from Spain with large army came & in 68 pronounced sentence of death against all inhabitants of N.lands. Bloody struggle continued many yrs. Little town of Alkmaar withstood a great spanish army by cutting the dikes & flooding the country.
  5. Dutch were nearly always victorious & the heroic N.landers after many struggles & severe trials made their country a refuge from religious oppression.
  6. Puritans, driven from England left Holland as found colonies in America & elsewhere.
  7. Struggle with spain went on for centuries.
  8. 19th century- William I, II, III were kings
  9. 1898- Daughter Wilhemia, 1oyrs was enthroned after III died.
  10. 1901- She married Prince Henry.

Add a comment January 15, 2008

Germany history

  1. 843AD- History begins with the treaty of Verdun, when the great empire of Charlemagne was divided among his grandsons. Germany was divided into duchies.
  2. 919-36 Henry the Fowler governed the united Germany
  3. 10th century-1806 Otho I founded the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.
  4. 12th century- Germany was closely allied with Italy.
  5. 1138-52 Conrad ruled
  6. 1298-1308 Albert I of Austria ruled during which 3swiss counties freed themselves from Germany.
  7. 1307- Willian Tell shot the apple from his son’s head
  8. 1618-48 30yrs war involved nearly all Europe.
  9. 1701- Elector(who elects emperors) Frederick became king of Prussia. He strongly opposed Hapsburg rule.
  10. Prussia came through the 7yrs war victorious & was after that a military kingdom.
  11. 1858- William I was made regent of Prussia.
  12. 1866- Austria withdrew from German Confederation
  13. 70- Franco-German war resulted in crowning of William I emperor of all Germany.
  14. 88- He died & later his sons got the crown.

Add a comment January 15, 2008

Switzerland history

  1. 1st known inhabitants were the Helvetti, brave mountaineers.
  2. For centuries Swiss dukes were dependent on German emperors.
  3. 1313- Great battle of Morgarten with Austrians.
  4. 1648- Though 30yrs war with Houses of Hapsburg almost put an end to swiss Confederation, fortunately Treaty of Westphalia declared switzerland independent of the German empire. Through the reign of Louis XIV, swiss were in constant turmoil & danger from French domination.
  5. German, French & italian r spoken in here.
  6. 1848- Govt of Switzerland was solidified by the constitution of 1848 which was again revised in 1874.

Add a comment January 15, 2008






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