Archive for August 2007

Computer buying guide

1. Reqt: If for internet, emails, word processing, u dont need a powerful comp. For photos, games, need better graphics card, more memory, bigger hard drive. Imp thing to consider is some type of back up device so u dont loose data.

2. Brand name- imp as there r many clones out there except Apple which is a unified system as makes hardware & software & u’ve less problems with compatability. With clones, diff parts made by diff manufacturers, so when problem comes, cant be fixed as there’s no one place u can go to & also no warranty. Clone comps r cheap but not made by tier 1 manufacturers like Dell, IBM, H.packard, sony, apple who give good warranties & have good customer service. Comps typically come with at least 1yr warranty. U can buy extended warranty, which will extend warranty to 3yrs. For laptops, get extended warranty as moved around so often, have problem lot higher than desktops. When u buy new comp, u typically get either 9 days or 6 mths of toll-free tech support from manufacturer. You can buy extended warranties that will extend to 3yrs. Good benefit if buy from a place that does have a repair shop so could walk into, no packing & shipping. U can contact manufacturer to find out if comp store is authorized to repair or sell other comps.

3. Monitor: Desk top machines don’t come with monitors. Some Macs, for ex- iMac, come bundled with a monitor inside it. Laptops come with displays built into it.

4. Size of notebook effects wgt of comps. So screen size, wgt, screen resolution comes into play. Most notebooks offer integrated wireless internet access. Generally, they come with 82.11b and 82.11g cards integrated into computer. Some of the newer notebooks do come with 82.11n. The 82.11b was the original wireless standard. It later came out with 82.11g, which was a faster wireless card that u really only notice during file sharing betn comps. As far as internet access goes, u’ll not see much diff betn 82.11b or 82.11g.

5. Some laptops r small, don’t have any optical drives to burn CD’s or DVD’s internally so will need an external one to burn video. Faster the processor, lower ur battery life is going to be as uses up a lot of power. Displays now come with glossy screens, ultra-high resolution, really geared for video editing, photograpy, gaming.

6. RAM- Random Access Memory is a chip inside comp that stores info that is open at that time. When u open an appl, that appl resides in RAM. When u quit the appl, it’s freed from RAM. Most powerful software is definitely going to be video editing & gaming software which use the most CPU power & require high-end CPU, a lot of memory, a big graphics card, so get as much RAM as u can. If u go into ur comp & chk the system profile, it’ll generally desc type of memory. If not,u can always chk with salesperson Or manufacturer. RAM is crucial for comp’s performance so stick with name brand RAM such as Kingston, Crucial, Corsair, Nanya, Samsung which have lower failure rates than generic brands.SODIMM is a small outline dual inline memory module, and DIMM is a dual inline memory module. SODIMMs are used in laptops; they’re small-factor memory chips. DIMMs are long, used in desktop comps. Buy RAM with lifetime warranty. imp so u’ll have enough memory to store videos, photos.

7. RPM- revolutions per minute. Inside hard drive there r disk platters which rotate just like a record on a record player. Faster it rotates, faster the info is transferred from hard drive to processor. That in turn increases read time & write time on hard drive.

8. Battery life: Most manufacturers overstate the battery life. They’ll say for ex, u’ll get about 5hrs of battery life. However, that’s generally with the screen dimmed, power management on, not accessing hard drive, not playing any DVD movies etc. So typically, betwn 3-5hrs on most laptops if comp not being used to any great extent. If watching DVD movie, will only last 2hrs.
It’s not a good idea to buy a used laptop as no warranty, parts r small & expensive to replace when problem comes.

9. Comp speed- determined by speed of CPU, brain of comp, measured in GHz which means billions of cycles per sec. More GHz,, faster the comp is able to make calc’s per sec. CPU is a piece of hardware that handles all calc’s that go on inside comp. When u click on s’thing, that goes to processor which determines what u want to do based on software that u’re running & makes the calc’s, then u see the rslt on screen. MHz & GHz determine speed of comp. Comps nowadays r all measured in GHz. A MHz is million cycles per sec.

10. Cache- short-term storage. Cache enables comp to store parts of data, or complete data, in an area of comp that can be accessed more rapidly. For ex, comp could take info that is stored on hard drive & put that info onto a memory chip. It can be read & written faster to a memory chip than it can be read & written to a hard drive. That also comes into play when u go on the internet. There is software cache, where comp will store frequently accessed websites or images that u visited. This cache works so that next time u go to that website, it doesn’t have to download all that info again – it can just access it quickly from hard drive & so will improve speed of comp or it can go to a memory chip to pull that info up.

11. Processor: U don’t have much choice as to what type of processor is in ur machine unless u build it urself. Most PCs come with either Intel or AMD processor. Macintosh comps previously came with a Power PC chip designed by Motorola, but now transitioned into Intel chips. Single processor has only 1chip that does all calc’s, dual processor has 2chips that work together. There is a lot of progs that don’t take advg of a dual processor, so buy only if appl u’re running can take advg of 2processors. There r actually some progs that will run faster on a single processor that’s running, let’s say, 2GHz than a dual processor running at 1.5 GHz b’cos appl needs to be designed to the advg of that dual processor. Only way to chk u’re not getting a slower processor than private seller has advertised is to look at processor itself. Through software, u can manipulate what the processor speed is showing, so unless u really physically look at processor chip, u can’t be 100% sure.

12. Chips: Intel is the largest chip maker in the world. AMD also makes chips but not as famous as Intel, but there’s not really much of a diff. All Macs now actually run on Intel chips too, so they have a larger share of the market than AMD does, but they’re both good chips. A “Celeron” is a lower end Intel chip,generally in cheaper, less expensive comps. “Pentium” chip is the higher end chip, made by Intel. MultiMedia extension technology refers to set of instruc’s that come on Intel chips. When they’re enabled, progs that can take advantage of that will be able to run faster. There r not a lot of progs right now that can take advantage of MMX technologies, but later on when progs come out, they can take advg of it, so good idea to get a chip with MMX. Centrino is Intel’s mobile processor. It is a high performance, cool running chip, will not find it in any desktop machine; only in laptops.

13. Documentation: Most of the documentation is in an electronic format on comp or is available online. Manufacturers do this to cut costs but if u dont know how to use a comp, u’re not going to know how to get the online documentation or how to find it on comp. S’times u need s’thing to read & manufacturers need to realise that documentation is still necessary.

14. Store: What’s going to set comp stores apart while buying comp is the customer service u get, knowledgeable staff. For under $400 u can buy complete systems nowadays including CPU, printer, monitor enough for net & word processing. Buy as much as u can afford for it to last longer b’cos technology moves so fast that as soon as u buy it often seems obsolete. High margin comp products r cables as no 1, next ink cartridges.

15. Companies: Computer stores generally make their money in dealing with large volume. Computers themselves have really, really low margins on them, so volume helps. Also, accessories & peripherals r really big money makers for comp stores. Cables, inks, surge protectors, CDs, media, all little knick knacks that u get for comp.

16. Refurbished comp- a comp that’s been returned to manufacturer for repairs. Refurbishing gives u a new warranty too. It’s really imp if buying a refurbished item to make sure that it does come with a warranty, then its like new one but for less money, not a bad idea.

17. Internal CD/DVD drive- If name brand then generally it’s not a problem. Faster the drive, less time it will take u to burn CDs or DVDs. Most comps now come with at least 8/16 speed DVD burners, 52 speed CD burners.

18. Gray market parts- r items that aren’t authorized by manufacturer for sale, sold for less. They could be parts that were intended for sale in diff countries. Doesn’t mean that parts r bad, they’re often the same as parts that r used in non-gray market comps, but there r no warranties associated with them, so u’ve to be careful. It’s also difficult to really tell if u’re getting a gray market item or a non-gray market item. So, buy from a reputable store. If u want to chk whether comp itself is a gray market comp, chk with manufacturer by providing serial no of that comp who can tell if that serial number was sold to an authorized reseller.

19. Peripheral is any device that u hook up to ur comp like printer, k.board, mouse, surge protector, CD’s, DVDs, ink cartridges for printer, USB hubs to expand amount of ports u’ve on ur comp. Dont skimp on getting the best ones.

20. Extra hard drives provide lot more storage space for multimedia rich appl’s, videos, music, mp3’s which all take up a lot of hard drive space. If u’ve 2hard drives,u can offload all ur multimedia data on to that hard drive or u can use for back up. Speed of hard drive only comes into play if using appl’s that demand high-intensive disk access. For video editing, gaming, databases that need to be accessed really quickly, u’d want to get a 720 RPM hard drive. Other than that, for general office applications, internet browsing, email, 540 RPM drive is just fine.

21: CD/DVD burner: U do not need to purchase additional software with a CD/DVD burner. Most current operating systems will be able to load the drivers for the optical drive that u buy. Some of the more advanced CD/DVD burners have some custom appl’s that do require specialized software that u can buy on after market progs or will be included with the optical drive when u buy it.

22. Cables & surge protectors: Peripherals that carry the most mark-up r definitely cables in all varities. Even surge-protectors, UPS back-up systems carry pretty hefty mark-ups.

For Monitors: CRTs r old big clunkers, cathode ray tubes. LCDs are the nice, flat panel liquid crystal displays. There are a lot fewer emissions on LCDs so easier on eyes, better for envt as use less power, use less energy, less disk space, qlty good.With higher resolution, u’ll get a crisper image. It’ll be sharper with less strain on your eye. However, u need to make sure that comp can drive the resolution of ur screen. You can buy a really high end screen, which can be really high resolution, but ur graphic card may not be able to output that resolution. CRTs are pretty much gone except for some graphic design. LCD monitors, if 15″, $120, $130, 17″- $170, 20″, 23″, 24″ betn $700 & $1000. Most comps now have monitors that attach to them via these monitor connections – DVI cable, VGA cable or HDMI cable. I would say about 9% of the time it would be DVI or VGA. DVI stands for Digital Video Interface & is a digital cable, whereas VGA is an analog cable. So if u can, always go with a DVI connection over a VGA connection as image will be a lot crisper. HDMI is High Definition Multimedia Interface, & is a cable that carries both video & sound through it. Most televisions – high definition televisions – will have that input. If ur comp does have an HDMI output, u can connect ur comp to a tv that supports HDMI & carry that signal & sound.

23. Software- progs that u install which provide instruc’s set for ur processor. Without software, comp would just be sitting there not knowing what to do. software provides info to comp. exs: u use everyday are: word processing, web browser, email. Most new comps will come with anti-virus software, trial software for office applic’s, anti-spyware software, some game software. Mostly it is all on a trial basis & u’ve to pay for it after 30-60days to unlock it. U definitely need to buy Microsoft Office products. They’re extras, don’t come bundled with it. Anti-virus software, anti-spyware imp if not running on a Mac/Unix system, that is more prevalent to virus infection.

24. Operating systems come preinstalled from manufacturers but’ll provide u with disks in case u need to reinstall that system or as back up.
Linux is an op.system based on Unix developed by Linus Thorvald & a group of developers throughout the world. It’s a free or low cost, provides a really robust, solid op.system that doesn’t get infected by viruses & is not susceptible to spyware either.

25. Ports: New comps generally come with 2or3 USB ports in them for external peripherals but not enough b’cos most of them r USB now, USB cameras, USB keyboards, mice, printers, so USB hub is very imp which will plug into 1 of the existing USB ports.
Bus powered drive does not require power supply as cable that connects it to comp provides power to drive & also provides data transfer.

26. Slots: PCI bus slot on desktop machine gives expansion capabilities, so buy comp that have extra PCI slots for expansion later to add another video card or network card. PCI is an older slot used for graphics cards. AGP is a newer one, & even a newer one is PC Express. AGP is a faster graphics card system, allows graphics card to talk to processor at a much higher rate than PCI graphics card.

27. New technology: SATA, serial advanced technology attachment is a new technology that is in most modern comps. It is a faster interface for hard drives that replaces ATA or PATA hard drives. SATA provides expanded bandwith necessary for increased fast disk access.


Add a comment August 27, 2007

Printer basics

1. Inkjet printer- comes with diff ink cartridges, black or color. Ink is sprayed on to paper. Printer will cost less but cost of inks r little higher so manufacturers give for really cheap price.
2. Laser printer- uses heat to put toner ink onto paper, higher performance, higher volume printers. The cost per page is a lot less on a laser printer than it is on a ink jet printer.
3. Multi-function printer- has a fax machine, a scanner, a copier integrated into 1, so take less space but if 1 sm problem comes, whole thing unusable.
4. Wireless travel printers- comes in many models, u can hook up via Bluetooth or via 82.11b or g wireless technologies. Most laptops do come with wireless built into them. If printer have wireless card inside it, u can print wirelessly.

Paper type imp b’cos if printing photos, need to make sure paper does not spread ink over paper. Regular paper u use to print docs have lot of fiber in them which will take the ink & spread it all over. If u want high qlty pictures which shdn’t fade or need them to be waterproof, then need specialty papers designed specifically for that like photo qlty paper which come in variety of thicknesses & wgts. Epson or HP or Canon, make their own papers that have been matched to ink that they produce, to give u optimal picture qlty.

Add a comment August 27, 2007

Internet basics for dummies

1. Website– doc hosted on a server, written in HTML lang.

2. HTML- hypertext markup language. 1 of early inventions of internet to publish websites so info is standard on server & still be read by many diff comps that may not all be same but even so can read info same way. It’s what allows web page to be so dynamic, allows publisher, the creator of that web doc to create diff links so u can hop from 1place to another.

3. Server/ host is fancy name for comp that is faster, more powerful & capable of doing more things at same time than normal comp. It will actually hold the main repository, the library, that has the content that’s going to be available to people surfing net looking for particular content. Home comps can act as a server in a sm way or can be a bldg with racks & racks of servers & comps that are connected, that are handling millions & millions of requests at same time.

4. Search engine- Internet’s librarian. They grew out of a combination of sm programming technologies that allowed little spiders & bots & crawlers to go out on net & do searching & indexing for various kinds of info. But now this has been perfected by Google & Yahoo.

5. Login- Pwd/login name & username r the secret codes that u’ve set up as an agreement betn u & ur host or email provider which allows u to access info or website for security. Combination of letters & no’s is more secure.

6. URL– Universe Resource Locator. Website address, ex-,

7. Http– hypertext transfer protocol

8. Domain name– ur company’s or website name, ex-, .tv, .biz.

9. Browser allows u to point to diff locations, then actually pull up content from diff locations.

10.Blog: A log is journal or a diary that people add new statements or comments to. A blog is a journal or diary on net. There r many sites that hosts blogs, most professional websites have blogs which allow u to add new info to what they’re doing. It could be private or public.

11. Cache was lot more necessary during days of dial-up on ne b’cos websites contain massive amounts of info & a lot of that info stays the same from 1day to the next. So if u were to go on 1website today & the same website tomorrow, most of the info would stay the same, some of the text would change. So caches were created as a way of storing that data that doesn’t change, b’cos dial-up was a slow form of communication. In today’s days of high speed internet, it’s much less necessary to cache websites as u browse. In fact, with a high speed connection, caching ur website can actually slow you down b’cos if ur comp has to look in ur cache & find out what’s new, what’s changed, what’s diff, it takes much more time than just pulling the new info down.

12. DPI-dots per inch. it has to do with how detailed the resolution is of the image that u’re looking at. If u’re sending an email with a photo, 72 DPI is typically what u’d use, if this image is going to be displayed on a webpage or just sent to look at onscreen but not to print. 300 DPI, appropriate for printing basic image. If going to do big, big, high resolution blow-ups of s’thing, or real photo qlty prints, 600 DPI or 2400 DPI. You can really go even higher and higher in terms of detail & resolution. The more DPI you have, the more resources & more memory to contain image, but more qlty & takes long to transmit, print.

13. LAN- Local Area Network, simple home network at office or house, where all comps on network r sharing their internet connection & r connected through the same switch, the same router & the same networking device.
WAN– wide area network. comp’s that r on diff local segments & r only interconnected b’cos they r on World Wide Web.
PAN- personal area network. It is connection u personally have with technology around u. The way ur cellphone communicates with ur laptop, the way ur Bluetooth headset communicates with ur cellphone & laptop, the way u communicate with ur car’s Bluetooth system. Bluetooth is currently the most notable PAN, but Infra-Red is also a notable PAN, and some low level Radio Frequency & wireless.

14. Cellular router or 3G device is the same technology that allows to talk on cell phone, where ur wireless carrier is basically converting ur voice into data. They allow u to plug in with a card that has a phone no assigned to it, but the card’s only function is to transmit & receive data. It does no talking, it simply sends & receives data through use of 3G technology.

15. FTP– file transfer protocol. It’s 1 of many standardized protocols that allows net to function. It allows transmissions, sending & receiving of data, sound, images on net to function. It’s 1 of the protocols thats existed on net for a long time that allows pkt’s of info to be moved around.

16. Modem “modulator demodulator.” In early days of Internet, before broad band network came, modem used to convert sounds to zeroes & ones & vice versa. Thus all those whistles & bells & clicks that u hear whenever u dial a fax machine, or whenever a fax machine dials incorrectly & u pick up, what u’re hearing is this old style modem technology. Very inefficient, but it was the only option available for a long, long time & still has appl’s here & there.

17. Java- 1 of many prog lang’s on Web. It’s very powerful, developed by sun microsystems. It does deliver certain kinds of appl’s & func’s on many, many web pages. It can create a lot of diff kinds of interactive possibilities for user as they’re browsing web.

18. Active X- 1 of many newer web technologies that allows animated content, developed by Microsoft.

19. CGI– Common Gateway Interface. 1 of many ways in which interactivity betn user & web page can be programmed & experienced. It’s 1 of the ways that u when interact with a web page can be prompted to enter certain info, & consequently drive & actually alter that web page by entering info through this common gateway interface.

20. Download– Bringing picture etc from web to ur comp & upload is viceversa.

21. POP– post office protocol. 1 of many standardized communications protocols that allows for capturing & interacting with e-mail on web. Specifically what a pop enabled mail server allows u to do is use ur local mail client like an outlook & outlook express Mac mail program to actually fetch that mail for u from ur web post, from ur server bring it down to ur comp locally. It’s very effective way of fetching mail, downloading mail quickly & allows u to organize it easily & really track all ur communications.

22. File compression-compression of files such as text file, a picture, or even music, for sending or receiving info in a smaller or a bundle file.

23. Dial-up technology- Not so long ago there were no broadband networks, no DSL, no cable internet. Broadband was reserved for big coprorations, govt, so only communications structure that existed was telephone network. Dial-up would use modem. It’s not very fast.

24. Link- If want to send s’thing very, very big, that takes up too many MB’s, hard to send through email, then just send link which is a little piece of code that they can click on, that will point right to that server & allow them to access that info.

25. IP- diff locations on web can actually all be reduced to nos. This no is expressed in s’thing called internet protocol. It’s usually a series of 4nos separated by a dot. If u dial up, there is a resource out there on net that converts that request into that series of digits, into that numerical address that is the translation of

26. CD-ROM- stores digital info, most commonly music, can hold 7MB of any digital data. Every comp nowadays have capability of reading & burning CD-ROMS.

27. Icon- part of GUI, symbol that u can click, can be a shortcut or may just points to someplace else on comp.

28. Plug-ins- r ur friends, make ur browsing experience more robust. Lots of diff companies & lots of diff people have built web that is constantly under devpment. Webbrowsers like Internet Explorer, Firefox, Netscape, Opera, Safari etc gets changed too, so get flash plug, which lets u run certain kinds of animation. Allow that ActiveX control to happen. Download the latest Java update so that comp can run Java applications more effectively.

29. Spam- Any electronic junk mail. Spam is both a noun & a verb.

30. ISP- Internet service providers. Data transfer rate is really imp b’cos ISPs can make claims that u can have a certain download speed, but depending on where u’re, u may not be abe to receive those speeds. How close u’re to the central office will make an impact too.

31. Downstream- info u receive from net, ex, downloading file. Upstream is viceversa, ex email or attachment to somebody.

32. DSL- digital subscriber line is a broadband technology that enables u to connect to net via ur existing phone line. DSL modem allows that connection to happen simultaneously, so u’ll be connected to net 24 hrs a day without interrupting phone service. If u’ve a DSL modem, then u’d have phone line going into DSL modem & an Ethernet or RJ45 cable coming from DSL modem to ur comp or network.

33. Cable modem- box or device that u attach to ur comp or local network that will give u net access to all machines in ur home or business. If u’ve a cable modem, u’re generally going to have a coaxial cable coming in & an Ethernet cable (also known as an RJ45 cable) that goes from cable modem to ur network.

34. Protocol- lang that allows devices to talk to each other.

35. Bluetooth- 1 of the more recent devpments of technology. Most common Bluetooth is a headset that is used to connect with a cell phone. This allows u to have the good sound in & out through ur cell phone without holding phone. It’s hands free. U also don’t have problem of a cord. Bluetooth technology can send sound as well as data very, very easily betn a cell phone & Bluetooth devices.

36. PDAs– personal data systems like Palm Pilot, a Blackberry, or a Trio if enabled with Bluetooth, communicate with ur comp to synchronize data, info, addresses, calendars, phone no’s, etc. without needing bulky cord to be connected to comp & phone.

Add a comment August 26, 2007

To stop snoring

1. Stop alcohol as relaxes jaw, throat muscles causing excessive snoring.
2. Stop smoking, irritates breathing passages.
3. Use pillow always to reduce strain on neck which relieves pressure on breathing passages.
4. Sleeping on side reduces pressure on windpipe.
5. Use nasal spray before bed to clear nasal cavity.
6. Nasal strip sticks to nose, flexes it gently outwards opening up the nostrils to let more air flow.
7. If apnea, surgical procedure is life saving.

Add a comment August 24, 2007

Alleviating stomach ache

1. Try to empty bowels.
2. Drink 1t baking soda + 1gl h20, treats upset stomach.
3. Drink peppermint tea for soothing effect.
4. Lie down on left side with knees curled up.
5. No greasy/spicy/rich foods.

Add a comment August 24, 2007

Relieving vomiting

1. Wipe face with cloth dipped in warm h20 & wringed out.
2. Drink lot of fluids. water/isotonic glucose drinks/1t salt + 1lt h20 + 4-5t sugar sipped slowly.
3. For next 24hrs eat only easily digested non spicy foods.
4. If persists, seek medical advice.

Add a comment August 24, 2007

Foot cramp

1. Put wgt on front of painful foot.
2. Once 1st spasm has passed, walk around.
3. If still in spasm, remove shoes, socks, sit down/bend still keeping wgt in front of foot.
4. If toes r in spasm, straighten toes. Pull toes back towards u.
5. When spasm eases, msg affected area gently.

Add a comment August 24, 2007

Help for faint

1. Lay down, elevate legs to improve blood flow to brain.
2. Get fresh air.
3. If not made rapid recovery, go to doctor ASAP.

Add a comment August 24, 2007

Cure for bad breath

1. Avoid alcohol/smoking/spicy food & onion, garlic.
2. 1hr after eating meals, brush.
3. Eat fibrous breakfast, cleans tongue.
4. If have gum disease, use m.wash with flouride & alcohol free.
5. Chew sugar free gum, encourages the flow of saliva which neutralises acids in mouth.
6. If still problem, go to dentist.

Add a comment August 24, 2007

Relieving toothache

1. Wash mouth with t.paste/water to get food & sugar out.
2. Sit more upright using pillows.
3. Apply hot water bottle wrapped in towel where pain felt.
4. Hold cotton dipped in clove oil against painful tooth for temp relief & also plug the cavity.
5. See dentist ASAP as sign of decay/infec.

Add a comment August 24, 2007






August 2007
    Sep »

Posts by Month

Posts by Category